What are Batteries and What are their Duties

  • Batteries are devices that store electrical energy by converting it into chemical energy, that convert chemical energy into electrical energy when needed and perform this cycle multiple times.
  • Battery provides the power to press the starter that is required to run the vehicle. They are devices that provide the electricity for equipment on the vehicle that require electricity (radio, lighting, ventilation etc.).

Terms Related to Batteries

  • Rated Capacity (Ah)

It is the electrical load (in terms of Ah) that a fully charged battery can provide to 10,50V voltage value for 20 hours, when discharged with the current of its 1/2 capacity.

  • Starter Press Power (CCA)

It is the maximum current value that the battery can load at once.

  • Voltage (V)

It is the potential difference between the positive and negative poles of the battery. Its unit is defined as the Volt (V).



Charging Process

  • The battery loses power over time when not used. This causes a drop in battery voltage. If the battery voltage drops below 12.40V, it should be subject to supply recharge.
  • The charging process should be performed with the rated capacity 1/20 of the battery. The charging process should be ended when the battery voltage reaches 16.00V.
  • Electrolyte temperature should be kept between 25-35 0C during charging.
  • The rectifier should be turned off after the charging process is ended and then battery connections should be taken off.
  • Electrolyte level should be checked for batteries that require maintenance following charging process and distilled water should be added if there is any drop in electrolyte level.

Safety and Environmental Measures

  • Environment ventilation should be ensured, as there shall be gas explosive gas exhaust during the charging process and it should not be approached with fire.
  • Waste (scrap) batteries should never be thrown away, but be delivered to battery services.
  • Electrolyte (battery water) should never be poured into sinks, sewage etc.
  • When making battery connections, first the positive cable then the negative cable should be connected.
  • Battery connection should be carried out with caution. Connecting parts should never be left loose.



  • Battery stock area should be kept at 250C temperature and sparking actions should not be performed.
  • The battery should not be turned sideways or reverse during stocking and transporting.
  • First the (+) Positive Pole Terminal should be connected when the battery is being connected to the vehicle. First the (-) Negative Pole Terminal should be removed when the battery is being removed from the vehicle.
  • The battery loses water over time when used. Distilled water should be added when electrolyte level reaches minimum (min.) line level in batteries (with lug nut) that require maintenance. Distilled water should be added until the maximum (max.) line.
  • Batteries with charge display (for single cell), it is possible to monitor the status of the battery from the color of the indicator.
    • Green: Indicates the battery is charged
    • Black: Indicates the battery requires charing
    • White: Indicates that adding distilled water is required for well-maintained batteries; and that the battery has to be replaced for unmaintained batteries.
  • The battery should be kept clean at all times and gas exhaust holes should not be obstructed.
  • During motor washing, the battery should be taken under control and connecting parts should be covered to prevent contact with water.
  • Unused (scrap) batteries should never be thrown into garbage and its electrolyte should not be poured. They should be delivered to the authorized dealers.

Battery Glossary

  • Heavy Vehicle : Battery type used in commercial vehicles such as trucks, buses and tractors. These are reinforced batteries to withstand shaking and tough road conditions.
  • AGM : These are batteries produced by soaking of separators into the electrolyte.
  • Air Mix : It is a system used in traction batteries. In batteries with airmix system, air is pumped into the cells using special rectifier during charging, and it is ensured that the electrolyte is homogenized by mixing.
  • Current : Electrical current is indicates electrical power flowing through an electrical circuit. Its unit is "Ampere (A)".
  • Active Substance : It is the paste causing chemical reaction with acid in the battery, determining the capacity or the starter power of the patter and consisting of various chemicals.
  • Battery : It is a generator that stores electrical energy as chemical energy and when a receiver is connected to its circuit, it converts this electricity back into electrical energy and provides it to the external circuit.
  • Battery Freeze : Although in the market it is known as battery freeze, it is not the battery that freezes but its electrolyte. Freezing accelerates if the battery is discharged.
  • Battery run out : Named as battery run out on the market, it is the state when the battery can no longer function. The state of non-operation caused usually by charge loss, is perceived as run out of the battery. An authorized dealer must be consulted, after which the battery must be replaced if necessary.
  • Bottom connection : The holder tabs on the bottom of the battery box. It is designed for connection to the vehicle base.
  • Ammeter : It is the device used to measure the current through the cable.
  • Over Discharge : It is the over discharge of the battery due to the user or the vehicle.
  • Overcharge (burn) : IT is the defect caused by fall off of the active substance on the plates (paste) and deformation.
  • Acid Density : It is the measure of the dilution of the acid used in the battery as electrolyte.
  • Maintenance Free : Battery that requires no maintenance under normal conditions.
  • Battery Hydrometer : It is the device for measuring density, used to observe the electrolyte density inside the battery.
  • Lug Nut : It is the material produced from acid-resistant polypropylene, designed to exhaust the gas that is produced during battery charge.
  • CCA (Cold Cranking Current) : It is the current to run (the vehicle motor) in cold.
  • COS : It is the welding machine that makes the connection of the positive and negative electrodes inside the battery cell.
  • Cycle Life : It is the number of charge-discharge cycles of a battery.
  • Double Cover : It is the second cover mounted on the lug nuts, over the cover where the battery joins the box, in order to prevent leakage.
  • Deep Discharge : It is the discharge of a battery until voltage levels below voltage levels specified in the standards.
  • Discharge Current : It is the current drawn from the battery during discharge.
  • Discharge : It is the battery supplying a system, by converting into electricity the energy stored as chemical.
  • Cycle : It is the charge and discharge of a battery.
  • ELA (Enhanced Lead Acid) : It is the name given to Enhanced Lead Acids.
  • Electrolyte : It is the form of pure acid diluted with distilled water. The final density value in batteries, optimized for high cycle number, low corrosion and maximum conductivity, is 1.285 gr/cm3.
  • Electrode : It is the positive or negative ion charged plate that forms polarity inside the battery.
  • Element Set : It is the name given to the combination of the paired positive and shell separator negative plaques.
  • Industrial Battery : It is the name given to batteries developed specially for industrial use.
  • Energy : It is the ability to do work. As per the working principle of the battery, it converts electrical energy into chemical energy and chemical energy into electrical energy.
  • Energy Density : It is the amount of energy that can be provided by the unit weight of a battery.
  • Exmet : It is a method for producing grids. Lead ingots are turned into strips and then are turned into grids with the exmet machine using rolling method.
  • Gas Exhaust : It is the process of exhausting to the outside of the battery, the gases that have formed as a result of the chemical reactions inside the battery.
  • Gas Exhaust Hole : It is the discharge route to the outside of the battery, the gases that have formed as a result of the chemical reactions inside the battery.
  • Gravity Casting : It is the casting technique applied using the effect of gravitational force.
  • Grifter Foam : It is the failure resulting from breaking of the battery terminal, tailstock and element piece.
  • Silver Tin Alloy : It is the alloy formed by combining silver and tin elements in a specific ratio. It increases anti-corrosion resistance in battery grids.
  • Hydrometer : It is the device for measuring density, used to observe the electrolyte density inside the battery.
  • Cell : It is the name given to the compartments in the battery box. There are a total of 6 cells in 12V batteries. There is 2V electricity in each cell.
  • Grid : It is the frame onto which the active substance is coated and which conducts electrical current.
  • First Charge : It is the charging process performed after the battery assembly process, to bring the battery to the required voltage level.
  • First Voltage : It is the voltage value that the battery reaches following first charge.
  • Indicator : After the first charging the battery voltage is reached .
  • Gel : It is the electrolyte of the battery having a gel state rather than a liquid state, after a special process.
  • Gel Battery : It is the name given to lead acid battery with gelled electrolyte.
  • Remaining Capacity : It is the difference between the total capacity and the used capacity of the battery.
  • Remaining Charge : It is the difference between the total capacity and the used capacity of the battery.
  • Cover : It is the piece placed on the box during assembly and which is used to isolate the contents of the battery from the external environment.
  • Closed System Cover : It is the cover system that does not allow for external intervention to the battery.
  • Capacity : It is defined as ampere hours. It indicates the total power that can be drawn from a battery as amperes. The capacity of the battery is dependent on the surface area and number of plates and the permeability of the separators.
  • Capacity Drop : It is the case of the battery giving capacity below the value specified on the label.
  • Self-Discharge : It is the capacity decrease over time, when the battery is not connected to any load.
  • Short Circuit : It is the failure caused by the contact of the positive and negative plates.
  • Connector : It is the connection equipment.
  • Position : It indicates the position of the positive and negative terminals on the battery.
  • Corrosion : It is the failure caused by long standby without charging or deep discharge. It is named as permanent sulphation.
  • Curing : It is the heating treatment to ensure that electrodes inside the battery complete chemical transformation.
  • Lead : It is the metal element with atom number 82.
  • Lead Sulfate : It is the chemical compound that is yielded during discharge.
  • Lead - Acid Battery : It is the energy storage system using lead as electrode and acid as electrolyte.
  • Box : It is the piece shaped as a plastic container, containing all the components of the battery.
  • Terminal Lead : It is the conductive part providing the electrical connection between the battery and the surrounding systems.
  • Terminal Lead Protective Cover : It is the cover that protects the terminal lead from external impacts.
  • Labyrinth Lug Nut : It is the component used to decrease water loss in the battery.
  • Starter Press Power : It is the discharge current expressed in terms of Amperes (A) of a fully charged battery at -18.0°C temperature, providing 7.5V voltage reached after 10 seconds. It can be defined with norms such as DIN, EN, IEC, SAE, JIS, TS, etc.
  • Central Gas Exhaust System : It is the system that ensures gases from the cells are exhausted through a single route.
  • Negative Electrode : It is a negative charged plate.
  • Negative Plate : It is a negative charged electrode.
  • Nominal Voltage : It is the voltage level specified on the battery label.
  • Oxidation : It the corrosion of the lead metal on the terminal leads of the batter, through entering into a chemical reaction with oxygen.
  • Life : It is the time period during which the battery provides expected performance.
  • Parallel Connection : Batteries may be connected in parallel during a rectification process. The currents should be summed in parallel connection and the rectifier should be adjusted.
  • Paste : It is the paste consisting of chemical materials, with which the plates are coated.
  • Burst : It is the failures where the hydrogen gas inside the battery damages the box - cover through arch etc.
  • Plate : It is the frame structure, consisting mostly of lead, onto which the active substance is coated.
  • Polarity : Polarization
  • Positive Electrode : It is a positive charged plate.
  • Positive Lead Terminal : It is the positive pole on the battery.
  • Positive Plate : It is a positive charged electrode.
  • Shelf Life : It is the period that a battery can stay on the shelf before requiring charging.
  • Rectifier : Battery charger
  • Distilled Water : It is a compound with 1 gr/cm3 density consisting of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.
  • Handle : It is the piece used to carry the battery.
  • Separator : It is PE, PVC, Glassmat, AGM material that prevents short circuit through contact of the negative and positive electrodes.
  • Serial Connection : Batteries may be connected in parallel during a rectification process. The voltages should be summed in serial connection and the rectifier should be adjusted.
  • Standard Capacity : It is the capacity value specified on the battery label.
  • Start-Stop : Start-Stop is an auxiliary system that prevents energy loss by automatically turning the engine off during heavy traffic or when your car stops at traffic lights, and re-starts once you press the clutch.
  • Stationary : They are batteries used in stationary facilities.
  • Sulphating : It is the failure cased by accumulation on the plate surface of sulphate ions in the electrolyte of the battery.
  • Charge Current : It is the suitable current value to charge the battery.
  • Charging Status : It is the parameter indicating the energy amount stored by the battery.
  • Charging : It is the supply of the battery with an electrical power supply and storage of electricity as chemical energy.
  • Charge Meter : It is an indicator providing information about the status of the battery, through connection to the car lighter.
  • Full Maintenance-Free : Battery type requiring no external intervention.
  • Full Frame Plate : It is the type of grid surrounded by lead alloy frame on all four sides.
  • Terminal type : It expresses the dimensional difference of the positive and negative terminals in batteries.
  • Traction : It is the industrial type battery used in mobile systems.
  • Valve : It is the material used to regulate gas exhaust during operation of the battery.
  • Voltage : There has to be electrical pressure between the poles in order for the current to move in a circuit electrically. This is called POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE or VOLTAGE between the poles. Its unit is "VOLT (V)".
  • Voltage Drop : It is voltage loss in the battery.
  • Voltmeter : It is a device used to measure voltage.
  • VRLA : It is a lead-acid accumulator regulated by valve.
  • Aging : It is the phase change process of the lead parts inside the battery over time.
  • Density : It is the mass per unit volume.
  • High Current Discharge : It is discharge of the battery with a current that is higher than the discharge value specified on the battery label.
  • High Current Charge : It is charging of the battery with a current higher than the recommended charge current value.



What should be done if the battery voltage is below 12.4V under open circuit condition? 
The battery should be connected to supply charge with 1/20 amperes of the Nominal Capacity.

What is the reason if the voltage of battery connected to vehicle is above 14.2V or 14.5V? 
Vehicle generator regulator is defective.

What is the reason if the voltage of battery connected to vehicle cannot reach 13 Volts?
Vehicle generator regulator or charge dynamo is defective.

What is the reason if the voltage of battery connected to vehicle is above 13.5V? 
One of the diodes of the charge dynamo has burst.

What is the reason if the voltage is above 13 Volts when the vehicle is idle? 
Vehicle generator regulator is defective.

What should we do if the indicator (lamp) is not green color in the new battery?
The ball of the indicator may have got stuck. The battery should be shaken to the right and left.

What is the reason if the label on the battery is shriveled and the colors of the screen-painting have been distorted?
The battery has been overcharged. The charge dynamo should be checked.

What is the reason if the voltage of one of the batteries is low, in vehicles using two batteries? 
One of the batteries is drawing 12 V current.

What should be done to obtain 12 V current in vehicles using two batteries? 
A converter must be placed in the circuit and current should be drawn from both batteries.

What is the reason if increasing values are observed for acid densities, from the negative cell to the positive cell?
The frame cable has become oxidized or the battery cannot obtain enough frame.

What is the reason if the acid color is not clear and is brown? 
The battery may have been overcharged, may have expired, the active substance in the plaques have drained down and mixed in the electrolyte.

What is the reason if the battery is not working in the morning but is working during the day?
The acid densities and voltage of the battery should be checked, if there is no problem with the battery, then the injector, starter motor and the heater plugs, if diesel, of the vehicle must be examined.

What would happen to the battery if the vehicle is used for a few times each month? 
The battery shall undergo sulfation due to standby loss and the vehicle shall become inoperable. Therefore the vehicle should be operated for at least 10 minutes, once every 15 days during summer and once a week during winter.

Can normal be used in commercial taxis? 
12V - 72 Ampere TAXI BATTERY must absolutely be used.

Which battery should be used in buses? 
Batteries produces specifically for buses should must be used.

What is the reason if in diesel vehicles, the vehicle is not operating even if acid density and voltage values are normal? 
The heating plugs of the diesel vehicle may be defective. The plugs should be checked.

What should be taken into account when mounting and removing the battery to and from the vehicle.
When removing the battery from the vehicle, first the negative cable end should be removed, and when mounting, first the positive cable end should be connected.

Should the acid be poured if the battery is not used?
Battery acid should never be poured.